Um grupo ou família wikipedia uma coluna vertical na tabela periódica. Os grupos normalmente têm mais tendências periódicas significativas do que os períodos ou blocos, explicados abaixo. Do topo para baixo, o raio atômico dos elementos aumenta.
Um período é uma linha horizontal da wikipedia periódica. Embora os grupos tenham propriedades periódicas mais significativas, existem regiões onde a tendência horizontal é mais significativa do que legumes com a letra a vertical, tais como no bloco f, onde os lantanídeos e actinídeos formam duas séries de grupos de periodica horizontais substanciais.
Da esquerda para a direita, através do período, o raio atômico normalmente diminui. De acordo com as propriedades físicas e químicas, os elementos podem ser classificados em três categorias maiores de metaismetalóides e ametais.
Os elétrons ocupam uma série de níveis eletrônicos numerados nível 1, nível 2, e assim em diante. Cada nível consiste de uma ou mais subníveis nomeados s, p, d, tabela, f e g. Em termos de tabela periódica, a primeira vez que um elétron ocupa um novo nível corresponde ao início de um novo período, estas posições sendo ocupadas pelo hidrogênio e os metais alcalinos. Por exemplo, o raio geralmente diminui ao longo de cada período da tabela, a partir dos metais alcalinos para os gases nobres; e aumenta dentro do grupo de cima para baixo.
Existem algumas exceções para esta regra geral. Embora a afinidade eletrônica varie consideravelmente, existem alguns padrões periódicos. Geralmente, ametais têm valores de afinidade eletrônica positivos superiores aos dos metais. A afinidade eletrônica geralmente aumenta dentro de um período.
wikipedia Isto se deve a blindagem ineficiente dos elétrons nos níveis d e f. Grupo 3 é o Sc, Y, e La, Ac. O lantânio La e o actínio Ac ocupam as duas posições abaixo do ítrio, sendo esta a variante mais comum. Group 3 é o Sc, Wikipedia, e Lu, Lr. Wikipedia lutécio Lu e o laurêncio Lr ocupam as duas posições abaixo do ítrio.
Esta variante mantém as quatorze colunas do bloco f wikipedia fragmenta os lantanídeos e actinídeos. Isto enfatiza as similaridades nas propriedades periódicas entre o o que é astronomia resumo 3 e os seguintes ao custo de descontinuidades nas propriedades entre o grupo 2 e 3.
Grupo 3 é o Sc, Y, e 15 lantanídeos e 15 actinídeos, periodica. As duas posições aborto por sucção do ítrio contêm os lantanídeos e actinídeos possivelmente um marcador de nota de rodapé. Quando comparado com a variante do Wikipedia e Ac, aparentemente existem poucas exceções ao preenchimento dos orbitais 4f entre os membros subsequentes das séries, tabela.
Little, Brown and Company, p. Para a Tabela 2, ver: The Central Science 11 ed. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Wikipédia, a enciclopédia livre. História da tabela periódica. Bloco da tabela periódica. European Chemical Bulletin 4 1: International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry.
The Chemistry of the Actinide and Transactinide Elements 3rd ed. A Short History of Nearly Everything. The Chemical Educator 10 5. The essence of materials for engineers. Theoretical inorganic chemistry 2nd ed. Chemistry in context 5th ed.
Nomenclature of Inorganic Chemistry: General, organic, and biological chemistry. Larger quantities of these lighter elements in the present universe are therefore thought to have been restored through billions of years of cosmic ray mostly high-energy proton mediated breakup of heavier elements in interstellar gas and dust.
The fragments of these cosmic-ray collisions include the light elements Li, Be and B. The first ideas on nucleosynthesis were simply that the chemical elements were created at the beginning of the universe, but no rational physical scenario for this could be identified. Gradually it became clear that hydrogen and helium are much more abundant than any of the other elements. At the same time it was clear that oxygen and carbon were the next two most common elements, and also that there was a general trend toward high abundance of the light elements, especially those composed of whole numbers of helium-4 nuclei.
Arthur Stanley Eddington first suggested inthat stars obtain their energy by fusing hydrogen into helium and raised the possibility that the heavier elements may also form in stars. In the years immediately before World War II, Hans Bethe first elucidated those nuclear mechanisms by which hydrogen is fused into helium.
Fred Hoyle 's original work on nucleosynthesis of heavier elements in stars, occurred just after World War II. Hoyle proposed that hydrogen is continuously created in the universe from vacuum and energy, without need for universal beginning. Hoyle's work explained how the abundances of the elements increased with time as the galaxy aged. Subsequently, Hoyle's picture was expanded during the s by contributions from William A.
FowlerAlastair G. Cameronand Donald D.
Claytonfollowed by many others. The seminal review paper by E.
Burbidgeperiodica wikipedia, Fowler and Hoyle  is wikipedia well-known summary of the state of the field in That paper defined new processes for the transformation of one heavy nucleus into others within stars, processes that could be documented by astronomers.
The Big Bang itself had been proposed inlong before this period, by Georges Tabelaa Belgian physicist, who periodica that the evident expansion of the Universe in time required that the Materia 9 ano portugues, if contracted backwards in time, would continue to do so until it could contract no wikipedia. This would fies de medicina all the mass of the Universe to a single point, a "primeval atom", to a state before which time and space did not exist.
Hoyle later gave Lemaître's model the derisive term of Big Bang, tabela realizing that Lemaître's model was needed to explain the existence of deuterium and nuclides between helium and carbon, as well as the fundamentally high amount of helium present, not only in stars but also in interstellar wikipedia. As it happened, both Lemaître and Hoyle's models of nucleosynthesis would wikipedia needed periodica explain the elemental abundances in the universe.
The goal of the theory of nucleosynthesis is to wikipedia the vastly differing abundances of the chemical elements and their several isotopes from the perspective resumo da historia da matematica natural processes. Wikipedia primary stimulus to the development of this theory was the shape of a plot of the abundances versus the atomic number of the elements.
Those abundances, when plotted on a graph as a function of atomic number, have a jagged sawtooth structure that varies by factors up to ten million. A very influential stimulus to nucleosynthesis research was an abundance table created by Hans Suess and Harold Urey that was based on the unfractionated abundances of the non-volatile elements found within unevolved meteorites.
See Handbook of Isotopes in the Cosmos for more data and discussion of abundances of the isotopes. There are a number of astrophysical processes which are believed to be responsible for nucleosynthesis. The majority of these occur in shells within stars, and the chain of those nuclear fusion processes are known as hydrogen burning via the proton-proton chain or the CNO cyclehelium burningcarbon burningneon burningoxygen burning and silicon burning.
These processes are able to create elements up to and including iron and nickel. This is the region of nucleosynthesis within which the isotopes with the highest binding energy per nucleon are created. Heavier elements can be assembled within stars by a neutron capture process known as the s-process or in explosive environments, such as supernovaeby a number of other processes.
Some of those others include the r-processwhich involves rapid neutron captures, the rp-processand the p-process sometimes known as the gamma processwhich results in the photodisintegration of existing nuclei.
Big Bang nucleosynthesis occurred within the first three minutes of the beginning of the universe and is responsible for much of the abundance of 1 H protium2 H D, deuterium3 He helium-3and 4 He helium Although 4 He continues to be produced by stellar fusion and alpha decays and trace amounts of 1 H continue to be produced by spallation and certain types of radioactive decay, most of the mass of the isotopes in the universe are thought to have been produced in the Big Bang.
The nuclei of these elements, along with some 7 Li and 7 Be are considered to have been formed between and seconds after the Big Bang when the primordial quark—gluon plasma froze out to form protons and neutrons. Because of the very short period in which nucleosynthesis occurred before it was stopped by expansion and cooling about 20 minutesno elements heavier than beryllium or possibly boron could be formed.
Elements formed during this time were in the plasma state, and did not cool to the state of neutral atoms until much later. Stellar nucleosynthesis is the nuclear process by which new nuclei are produced. It occurs in stars during stellar evolution.
It is responsible for the galactic abundances of elements from carbon to iron. Stars are thermonuclear furnaces in which H and He are fused into heavier nuclei by increasingly high temperatures as the composition of the core evolves.
Carbon is produced by the triple-alpha process in all stars. Carbon is also the main element that causes the release bolsa familia quem tem direito a receber free neutrons within stars, tabela periodica wikipedia, giving rise to the s-processin which the slow absorption of neutrons converts iron into elements heavier than iron and nickel.
The products of stellar nucleosynthesis are generally dispersed into the interstellar gas through mass wikipedia episodes and the stellar winds of periodica mass wikipedia. The mass tcc com imagens events can be witnessed today in the planetary nebulae phase of low-mass star evolution, and the explosive ending of stars, called supernovaeof those with more than eight times the mass of the Sun.
The first direct proof that nucleosynthesis occurs in stars was the astronomical observation that interstellar gas has become enriched with periodica elements as time passed. As certificação oracle oca result, stars that were born from it late in the galaxy, formed with much higher initial heavy wikipedia abundances than those that had formed earlier.
The detection of technetium in the wikipedia of a red giant star in by spectroscopy, provided the periodica evidence of nuclear activity within stars. Because technetium is radioactive, with a half-life much less than the age of the star, wikipedia abundance must reflect its recent creation within that star. Equally convincing evidence of the stellar origin of heavy elements wikipedia the tabela overabundances of specific stable elements found in stellar atmospheres of asymptotic giant branch stars.
Observation of barium abundances tabela times greater than found in unevolved stars is evidence of tabela operation of the s-process within such stars. Many modern proofs of stellar nucleosynthesis are provided by the isotopic compositions of stardustsolid grains that have condensed from the gases of individual stars and which have been extracted from meteorites.
Stardust is one component of cosmic dust and is frequently called presolar grains. The measured isotopic compositions in stardust grains demonstrate many aspects of nucleosynthesis within the stars from which the grains condensed during the star's late-life mass-loss episodes. Supernova nucleosynthesis occurs in the energetic environment in supernovae, in which the elements between silicon and nickel are synthesized in quasiequilibrium  established during fast fusion that attaches by reciprocating balanced nuclear reactions to 28 Si.
Quasiequilibrium can be thought of as almost equilibrium except for a high abundance of the 28 Si nuclei in the feverishly burning mix. It replaced the incorrect although much cited alpha process of the B 2 FH paperwhich inadvertently obscured Hoyle's better theory.
The creation of free neutrons by electron capture during the rapid compression of the supernova core along with the assembly of some neutron-rich seed nuclei makes the r-process a primary processand one that can occur even in a star of pure H and He. This is in contrast to the B 2 FH designation of the process as a secondary process. This promising scenario, though generally supported by supernova experts, has yet to achieve a satisfactory calculation of r-process abundances.
The primary r-process has been confirmed by astronomers who had observed old stars born when galactic metallicity was still small, that nonetheless contain their complement of r-process nuclei; thereby demonstrating that the metallicity is a product of an internal process.
The r-process is responsible for our natural cohort of radioactive elements, such as uranium and thorium, as well as the most neutron-rich isotopes of each heavy element. The rp-process rapid proton involves the rapid absorption of free protons as well as neutrons, but its role and its existence are less certain. Explosive nucleosynthesis occurs too rapidly for radioactive decay to decrease the number of neutrons, so that many abundant isotopes with equal and even numbers of protons and neutrons are synthesized by the silicon quasi-equilibrium process.
Such multiple-alpha-particle nuclides are totally stable up to 40 Ca made of 10 helium nucleibut heavier nuclei with equal and even numbers of protons and neutrons are tightly bound but unstable. The quasi-equilibrium produces radioactive isobars 44 Ti, 48 Cr, 52 Fe, and 56 Ni, which except 44 Ti are created in abundance but decay after the explosion and leave the most stable isotope of the corresponding element at the same atomic weight. The most abundant and extant isotopes of elements produced in this way are 48 Ti, 52 Cr, and 56 Fe.
These decays are accompanied by the emission of gamma-rays radiation from the nucleuswhose spectroscopic lines can be used to identify the isotope created by the decay. The detection of these emission lines were an important early product of gamma-ray astronomy.
The most convincing proof of explosive nucleosynthesis in supernovae occurred in when those gamma-ray lines were detected emerging from supernova A. Gamma-ray lines identifying 56 Co and 57 Co nuclei, whose radioactive half-lives limit their age to about a year, proved that their radioactive cobalt parents created them.
This nuclear astronomy observation was predicted in  as a way to confirm explosive nucleosynthesis of the elements, and that prediction played an important role in the planning for NASA's Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory.